In expert systems, a form of problem solving in which a program tries alternative solutions in an attempt to find the answer. The various alternatives can be viewed as branches on a tree: Backtracking is the program’s ability to follow one branch and, if it reached the end without finding what it seeks, to back up and try another branch.
A portion (called sector) of a disk that cannot be used because of bad media. During disk formatting, the operating system identifies any bad sectors on the disk and marks them so they will not be used in future. If a sector that already contains data becomes damaged, you will need special software to recover the data. Almost all hard disks have sectors that are damaged during the manufacturing process, but these are usually replaced with spare sectors at the factory, a process that is known as low level formatting. By the time the disk is shipped, it should be free of bad sectors. However, due to aging and depending on media quality, new bad sectors may form as time goes by.
An electronic circuit that passes signals that are within a certain frequency range (band) but blocks or attenuates signals both above and below the band.
Refer to the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted within a channel in a given time. Depending on the transfer and I/O type, bandwidth is usually expressed in terms of bit (byte) per second or Hertz.
Commonly, a reference to the speed at which a modem can transmit data. Often incorrectly assumed to indicate the number of bits per second (bps) transmitted, baud rate actually measures the number of events, or signal changes, that occur in 1 second. Because one event can actually encode more than 1 bit in high-speed digital communications, baud rate and bits per second are not always synonymous, and the later is the more accurate term to apply to modems. For example, a so-called 9600-baud modem that encodes 4 bits per event actually operates at 24—baud but transmits 9600 bits per second (2400 events times 4 bits per event) and thus should be called a 9600-bps modem.
Basic input output system. In most case, it is just a built-in software that stored in a ROM (Read only Memory) or EPROM (Electrical Programmable ROM) chip. Different devices or PCs will have different BIOS, but their purposes are similar, that is to provide some low level interface instructions that allow input and output devices to communicate with the main systems or PCs.
In reference to video, a verb meaning to not show or not display an image on part or the entire screen. With computers, a term sometimes used to describe the character entered by pressing the spacebar.
A search of data in memory or on a storage device with no foreknowledge as to the data’s order or location.
Having to do with logical (true, false) values. Many languages directly support a Boolean data type, with predefined values for true and false; others use integer data types to implement Boolean values, usually (although not always) with 0 equaling false and “not 0” equaling true.
A temporary or extra storage space (RAM or hard disk space) to keep data standby and ready for use to reduce waiting time.
1 byte is equal to 8 Bits, binaries that used to represent a text character, an image pixel or any data.
KB (kilobyte) = 1024 byte
1 MB (megabyte) = 1024 KB
1 GB (gigabyte) = 1024 MB
1 TB (terabyte) = 1024 GB